## Syllogism Questions - 1

#Directions (Q 1 to Q 40): In the questions below there are Statements followed by conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts, and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements.

Statements:

a. All Cups are Jars.

b. All Jars are Buckets.

Conclusions:

I. Some Cups are Buckets.

II. All cups are Buckets.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. All Cups are Jars.

b. All Jars are Buckets.

All + All = All => All Cups are Buckets. => Conclusions II follows.

Conclusion I does not follow.

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Statements:

a. Some Pens are Books.

b. Some Books are Magazines.

Conclusions:

I. Some Pens are Magazines.

II. Some Magazines are Books.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. Some Pens are Books.

b. Some Books are Magazines.

Some + Some = No Conclusion.

On conversion of statement b. Conclusions II follows.

Some Books are Magazines => Some Magazines are Books.

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Statements:

a. All Hens are Ducks.

b. Some Ducks are Peacocks.

Conclusions:

I. Some Hens are Peacocks.

II. Some Peacocks are Hens.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. All Hens are Ducks.

b. Some Ducks are Peacocks.

All + Some = No conclusion.

Neither of the statements follows.

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Statements:

a. All Cats are Dogs.

b. Some Dogs are not Monkeys.

Conclusions:

I. All cats are Monkeys.

II. Some Cats are not Monkeys.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. All Cats are Dogs.

b. Some Dogs are not Monkeys.

All + Some not = Some not.

Some Cats are not Monkeys => Conclusion II follows.

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Statements:

a. All cars are Buses.

b. Some Cars are Ships.

Conclusions:

I. Some Ships are Buses.

II. All Cars are Ships.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. All cars are Buses.

b. Some Cars are Ships.

Some + All = Some.

Some Ships are Busses => conclusion I follows.

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Statements:

a. All Caps are Helmets.

b. No Helmet is a Turban.

Conclusions:

I. No Cap is a Turban.

II. No Turban is a Cap.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. All Caps are Helmets.

b. No Helmet is a Turban.

All + No = No => No Cap is a Turban. Con I follows.

On conversion of conclusion I => No Turban is a Cap.

Both I and II follows.

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Statements:

a. Some Fruits are Vegetables.

b. All Candies are Vegetables.

Conclusions:

I. All Vegetables are Fruits.

II. No Candy is a Fruit.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. Some Fruits are Vegetables.

b. All Candies are Vegetables.

All + Some = No conclusion.

None follows.

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Statements:

a. Some Huts are Buildings.

b. Some Buildings are Flats.

Conclusions:

I. Some Huts are Flats.

II. All Flats are Buildings.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. Some Huts are Buildings.

b. Some Buildings are Flats.

Some + Some = No conclusion.

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Statements:

a. All Bulbs are Tubes.

b. Some Tubes are Lamps.

Conclusions:

I. Some Lamps are Bulbs.

II. No Lamp is a Bulb.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

a. All Bulbs are Tubes.

b. Some Tubes are Lamps.

All + some = No conclusion.

But Both conclusions I and II are complementary to each other, Either conclusion I or II follow.

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Statements:

a. No Phone is a Tap.

b. All Televisions are Chairs.

c. Some Chairs are Taps.

Conclusions:

I. Some Televisions are Taps.

II. Some Chairs are not Phones.

• Only Statement I follows.
• Only Statement II follows.
• Both I and II follows.
• Either I or II follows.
• Neither I nor II follows.
Explanation

b. All Televisions are Chairs.

c. Some Chairs are Taps.

All + Some = No conclusion.

a. No Phone is a Tap.

c. Some Chairs are Taps.

No + Some = Some not reversed.

Some Chairs are not Phones.

Only II follows.

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## Syllogism Rules, Tricks and Shortcuts

### Distribution Table:

 Â Â  Preposition Subject Predicate Â Â  A Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  All Yes No Â Â  E Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  No Yes Yes Â Â  I Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  Some No No Â Â  O Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  Some not No Yes

All + All = All

All + Some = No conclusion

All + No = No

Some + All = Some

Some + Some = No Conclusion

Some + No = Some not

No + No = No

No + All = Some not reversed

No + Some = Some not reversed

No + Some not = No conclusion

Some not + some not = No conclusion

All + Some not = Some not

Some + Some not = No conclusion

Time: